Are you looking for the best pre-workout supplement for women? Then you have come to the right place as our experts will help you make the right choice. Pre-workout supplements are pills, powder, or processed snacks taken around 30 to 45 minutes before you do your workouts.
The main purpose of using pre-workout for women is to help you get a boost of energy for your workouts and lose weight with the confidence of knowing that you’re taking a safe and effective supplement.
However, with the current proliferation of unsafe and untested supplement products on the market, consumers have become wary of taking any type of supplement including energy drinks, pain relievers and other health products, especially when they aren’t approved by the FDA. These concerns aren’t only reasonable but valid since nobody wants to put their health at risk in pursuit of pre-workout or any other supplement.
In this post, we will review 4 of the best pre-workout supplements for women based on our extensive research and consumer reviews. This guide is meant to point you in the right direction when you’re looking for the best pre-workout supplements for women.
They are all the best options you can find but not all are made the same. That’s why we came up with this in-depth analysis with pros and cons of each pre-workout supplement suitable for women.
Our Picks for the Best Pre-Workout for Women
- Powher – Best Overall
- 4 Gauge – Strongest Pre-Workout for Women
- Blackwolf – Specially Formulated for Women
- Performance Lab – Best for Women Athletes
Women’s Pre-Workouts Reviewed
Let’s first look at our top pre-workout supplements for women carefully chosen to suit everyone’s needs and budget.
We have also included a comprehensive buyer’s guide at the end to show you what factors you need to consider before making your choice.
Here are the best pre-workouts for women in 2020.
#1. Powher – Editor Top Pick
Powher is a pre-workout supplement exclusively designed with women in mind.
It’s manufactured by Ultimate Life, a well-known UK-based company that manufactures a popular female-focused supplement called Leanbean. Powher is also a perfect choice for people who find male-focused supplements either too strong or containing too many artificial ingredients for their liking.
Powher uses natural ingredients that not only make it effective but 100% safe too. It’s made by a clean brand and even features a clear and transparent ingredients label on the bottle.
Powher is available in a pink lemonade flavor enhanced by carefully selected ingredients and without excessive amounts of caffeine found in other pre-workout products. It doesn’t feature any proprietary blend which means you know the exact amount of each ingredient taken in each serving.
Why We Like Powher
Here are a few reasons why we believe Powher is one of the best pre-workout for women supplements today:
- It’s a female-focused supplement formulated with women in mind.
- Uses the key vitamins needed in weight loss such as vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 as well as Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5.
- It’s designed to help you get the most out of your workouts and achieve your weight loss or physical fitness goals.
- Quite easy to use. You only need to mix a single scoop of 10 grams with water and take it around 30 minutes before you start your workout.
- Powher is made of non-GMO and gluten-free ingredients. It doesn’t have side effects when taken in the right dosage. 
Here are some of the key ingredients used in this 100% natural pre-workout supplement for women:
- Vitamins B6 and B12 which significantly help in reducing fatigue and tiredness while boosting your energy levels naturally.
- Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid which helps to maintain normal mental performance and natural energy release
- 100mg of natural caffeine derived from Green Coffee Bean extract. This is actually the same amount of coffee you get in a strong cup of coffee.
- Oxyjun which is an extract of the bark of the Terminalia Arjuna tree. 
- L-Citrulline Malate which is an amino acid quite common in other pre-workout supplements.
- RedNite or beetroot powder
- Beta-Alanine which is known for its positive effects in boosting your energy levels before workout. 
- Taurine which is also used in the manufacture of energy drinks.
Powher Shipping and Return Policy
Powher is shipped worldwide. The company will even send you a tracking number within 48 hours after the order has been dispatched.
All orders placed within the USA, Canada, and Mexico are shipped on the same business day from the company’s depot in the US while orders in the UK are shipped by Royal Mail first class on the same business day. Delivery for Australia, Europe, and the rest of the world takes between 5 and 15 business days depending on the country and location.
The company has a very easy return process for unwanted and unused items. All you need to do is to contact their customer support within 7 days after you have received your order and they will tell you the appropriate address where you can return the item and request a refund.
Keep in mind that the refund process may take around 7 days and the refund will be less the handling and shipping fees.
Powher Pros and Cons
- Powher uses 100% natural ingredients
- Gives you a long-lasting energy boost
- It is a great choice for women who want to slim and tone their muscles
- Helps you to exercise harder for faster fat burning
- Comes with a caffeine alternative known as EnXtra which does not have side effects
- Has a fresh lemonade flavor
- It is made for women
- Powher is manufactured in FDA-approved facilities
- Fast worldwide shipping
- Comparatively pricier but delivers value for money
- Can only be bought online
Power is not sold through major retailers such as Amazon so you won’t get many online reviews about it.
We, however, came across a good number of reviews from verified customers on review sites which not only rated the supplement with 4 out of 5 stars but also talk positively about the results consumers are getting from the product.
A majority of women talked about the supplement’s good test and the energy boost it provides. Overall, most of the women who used it expressed complete satisfaction with the product.
Power is sold in single tubs each containing 20 servings. A single tub costs around $45 but the good news is that you can save money when you take advantage of multi-box discounts.
For example, when you buy the Ultimate Powher Pack at around $149 you get 4 tubs and free worldwide delivery. The company offers free shipping whenever you buy two items at the same time.
The supplement also comes at a reasonable price but the only downside is that you can only buy it from the manufacturer’s website.
#2. 4 Gauge – Strongest Pre-Workout for Women
If you are looking for an effective pre-workout supplement for women with a tasty fruity flavor then 4 Gauge is a perfect option. 4 Gauge is made by Roar Ambition, a company known for manufacturing high-quality and effective health supplements.
The supplement is marketed as a 4-in-1 pre-workout formula designed for people who want to boost the quality of their workouts. It is a perfect option for anyone who wants to achieve faster results at the gym or simply get a boost of energy while doing his or her home workouts.
4 Gauge is also a good option for women because it has low testosterone levels. However, keep in mind that due to low testosterone levels in the supplement it may take some time before you start seeing noticeable changes in your physique when you start using the supplement. The supplement is nevertheless quite effective in motivating you to keep on working and achieve your fitness goals.
4 Gauge is also quite easy to use. You just need to follow the directions on the label which tells you to mix one serving or two scoops with water or juice and take the mixture 20 to 30 minutes before your workouts. You can mix the powder with water or your favorite juice. It forms a light pink-colored fruit-testing mix and easily dissolves in water or juice, unlike other powder supplements that require vigorous stirring. 4 Gauge is also made using all-natural ingredients and 100% safe without side effects.
Why We Like 4 Gauge
Here are a few reasons why we like 4 Gauge:
- It is a 4-in-1 pre-workout formula that gives you amazing results
- Helps to improve your physique
- Gives you an energy boost to tackle your workouts
- Boosts your muscle strength
- Increases stamina and endurance during workouts
- It boosts your mental agility and increases focus and dedication during and after your workout sessions
- Made of all-natural ingredients
- No side effects
- Does not have artificial sweeteners
- Ships to most countries worldwide
4 Gauge Ingredients
4 Gauge comes with 8 key ingredients designed for women want to have perfect body and mind preparation for their daily workouts.
These ingredients include the following:
- Creatine monohydrate
- L-Citrulline DI malate
- Acetyl L-carnitine
- Coconut water powder
- Red beetroot extract
- Rhodiola rosea root powder 
These ingredients work together to create a perfect pre-workout supplement for women who want to achieve their exercising and weight loss goals.
4 Gauge Shipping and Return Policy
4 Gauge pre-workout supplement is shipped worldwide. Every order is sent out with a tracking mail service. The tracking number will be sent to you via email 24 hours after your order has been dispatched. The expected delivery time will depend on the company handling the shipping but you can always check your order’s tracking number to see the progress of your delivery.
Orders within the US and Canada including Puerto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii are dispatched from the company’s deputy located in Tennessee. Expected delivery time within the US and Canada is around 2 to 4 working days using tracked USPS Priority Service or 2 to 3 days using tracked FedEx 2-day service.
Orders within the UK are shipped from the company’s depot in England via Royal Mail Special Delivery or DHL services. Delivery time takes between 1 to 2 days. Delivery time for Europe, Australia, and the rest of the world takes between 2 to 15 days using Royal Mail special delivery or DHL Express.
Note that the company does not ship to certain countries including Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Cuba, Kuwait, Mauritius, North Korea, Mozambique, Russia, South Africa, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Peru, Israel, and Palestinian Territories among others.
The company has an easy and hassle-free return process. You can easily return any unopened and unused items by contacting their customer support desk where you will be given the right address to return the product to.
4 Gauge Pros and Cons
- It is an effective pre-workout formula made using carefully selected ingredients
- Gives you an energy boost and motivation to handle your workouts
- The efficacy of its ingredients is backed up by scientific research
- 4-Gauge is available at discounted prices
- It contains unique ingredients such as Rhodiola Rosea which is not found in many pre-workout supplements
- Does not have any artificial sweeteners
- Ships worldwide to most countries
- It has a nice pleasant flavor
- The pre-workout supplement is only sold from the manufacturer’s website. You won’t find it in other online stores and shops.
- Only available in one flavor
4 Gauge Customer Reviews
The product website features a good number of lengthy 100% genuine testimonials from customers who have used 4 Gauge to boost their workouts.
The customers talk about how the supplement has worked so well for them and the benefits they have seen after using 4 Gauge for a period of time.
One customer says that she almost gives up on pre-workouts after using products that left her feeling itchy and jittery before she heard about 4 Gauge. She now uses 4 Gauge which she says gives her a clean surge of energy and a feeling of improved strength and focus. Another customer says the supplement has significantly helped her to improve performance in high-intensity resistance training. She loves the continuous pump feeling the supplement gives her.
Most of the customer reviews also talked positively about the supplement’s natural ingredients and the great test it has. Others talked about how easy 4 Gauge is to use just by mixing it with water and stirring with a fork. The supplement has a high score and rating from its users.
4 Gauge Pricing
4 Gauge is a premium-priced pre-workout for women supplement. Currently, one bottle of 20 servings costs $45.
The good news is that Roar Ambition, the product’s manufacturer, provides huge discounts to buy more than one bottle at the same time.
You can always check their website for the latest discounts and offers. You also get free shipping to most countries worldwide and free hassle-free returns.
#3. Blackwolf – Specially Formulated for Women
If you’re looking for a pre-workout supplement with great flavor and big on results, Blackwolf is definitely a great choice. Blackwolf is formulated to give you a boost in energy, better focus, and increased endurance during your workouts. It’s made from 11 clinically studied ingredients in the right amounts to deliver the expected results without causing any side effects.
Each ingredient in the pre-workout supplement is clearly labeled including the amounts. Blackwolf doesn’t contain fillers, proprietary blends, or other secret ingredients. The manufacturer ensures that you know exactly what ingredient and the amount you’re taking in each serving.
Blackwolf is available is 3 great tasting fruity flavors, namely Green Apple, Blue Raspberry, and the caffeine-free Fruit Punch. The pre-workout is even used and endorsed by well-known athletes. What’s more, if you like working out in the evening or prefer to avoid caffeine, Blackwolf has a Fruit Punch flavor version that doesn’t contain caffeine.
The Fruit Punch flavor uses DMAE and huperzine instead of caffeine to ensure that you don’t stay awake all night if caffeine affects your sleeping pattern. Blackwolf is a clean workout fuel without the jitters, itches, and bad comedowns associated with some anabolic steroids and supplements. 
What We Like About Blackwolf
Here are some of the key things we like about Blackwolf:
- It’s an effective pre work out supplement made using clinically studied ingredients
- Comes in 3 great tasting fruity flavors
- Boosts energy and increases focus and endurance. It increases mental concentration and clarity
- Doesn’t contain proprietary blends. You know the exact amount of each ingredient you’re taking in each dose
- Comes with free worldwide shipping
Blackwolf is manufactured in the US in a facility that’s both FDA approved and GMP certified. The pre-workout is also manufactured under strict quality control. The ingredients used in the manufacture of Blackwolf have been clinically studied and found to be both effective and safe for firing up your workouts.
The ingredients include the following:
- 6000mg of L-Citrulline Malate
- 3000mg of Creatine Monohydrate
- 6000mg of Beta-Alanine
- Betaine Anhydrous 2000mg
- 1000mg Taurine
- 1000mg L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (AAKG) 
- Taurine 600mg
- 125mg Dynamine
- 200mg Caffeine Anhydrous in Green Apple and Blue Raspberry flavors only.
- 150mg DMAE and 10mg Huperzine in the Fruit Punch flavor which doesn’t contain caffeine
- 300mg coconut water powder
- 5mg BioPerine 
The manufacturer has even included the findings of over 25 clinical studies on Blackwolf ingredients on their official website.
Blackwolf Shipping and Return Policy
The manufacturer offers free shipping when you buy two or more tubs of Blackwolf or if you join their Subscribe & Save program. Shipping for a single tub costs around $9.95 in the US, £7.95 in the UK and Europe, and $19.95 for the rest of the world.
Your order is processed on the same working day and delivery takes 3 to 7 working days within the US and the UK, 3 to 20 working days in Europe, and 5 to 21 working days for the rest of the world. Presently, delivery may take longer than stipulated due to COVID-19 delays.
The company has a simple hassle-free return policy. For instance, you can cancel your order for whatever reason any time before the 14th day after you have received the goods. All you need to do to cancel your order is to contact their support by email (firstname.lastname@example.org) who will inform you of where to send the unopened and unused product.
Keep in mind that you’ll have to bear the cost of returning the product to the company but you’ll get your full refund back.
Blackwolf Pros and Cons
- Made using a blend of powerful clinically proven ingredients
- The company is 100% transparent about the product. Everything including the amounts of each ingredient used is clearly labeled
- Doesn’t contain “secret” proprietary blends
- Formulated to support and enhance your physical performance
- Great tasting fruity flavors
- Helps to increase endurance and focus
- Blackwolf can only be purchased online from the manufacturer’s official website
Blackwolf is an effective pre workout endorsed by famous athletes on the product’s website. For instance, Ekaterina Avramova, a well-known Olympic swimmer, says she uses Blackwolf before her morning training sessions with great results while professional boxer, Ekow Essuman says Blackwolf takes him 10 steps closer to his workout goals.
There are other testimonials from verified users of the supplement like Jenny F. who says it has a delicious taste and others who say Blackwolf leaves them more energetic and more pumped up t tackle their workouts.
You can buy one tub of Blackwolf from the official website for $44.99 which is a $10 discount from its recommended retail price of $54.99. Two tubs of Blackwolf cost $89.98 when purchased together which is a massive discount from the RRP of $109.98.
Keep in mind that you get free shipping when you purchase two or more tubs at once. The company accepts a wide range of secure payment methods including Amazon Pay and all the major credit cards.
#4. Performance Lab Sport Pre – Best for Women Athletes
Performance Lab’s Sport Pre is one of the most effective pre-workout supplements available today. The supplement is marketed as a “Beast in a Bottle” but it is indeed a clean vegan-friendly pre-workout formula packed with the nutrients your muscles need for high-intensity workouts.
Performance Lab Sport Pre is quite distinct from other pre-workout supplements because it does not contain caffeine as an ingredient. Most people choose to avoid supplements with caffeine because of the negative effects that caffeine comes with such as trembling and jitters some people experience when working out after taking a caffeine-rich supplement.
Sport Pre helps you to avoid side effects caused by excessive amounts of caffeine in your body. Whenever you feel like you need an extra dose of caffeine to boost your energy and drive, you can always brew a cup of your favorite coffee and take it together with a Sport Pre capsule before you hit the gym.
Performance Lab Sport Pre is a perfect choice for women who regularly do strength and high-intensity training. It is an effective supplement when you want to prepare your body for a demanding workout program. Medical tests and scientific research have also shown that Sport Pre is a safe supplement that you can use over the long term without fears of suffering adverse side effects. It is the right supplement to use when you want the energy for more explosive workouts.
Why We Like Performance Lab Sport Pre
Performance Lab Sport Pre comes with many benefits which is why we have included it in our list of the best pre-workout for women supplements.
Some of the great things we like about Sport Pre include:
- The ability to enhance your muscle strength and ability
- Helps to improve blood flow to the muscles
- Keeps your muscles well-nourished with the required nutrients
- Boosts both aerobic and anaerobic endurance
- Made of powerful all-natural ingredients
- It comes with a 60-day money-back guarantee
Performance Lab Sport Pre-Ingredients
Performance Lab Sport Pre has an impressive list of powerful ingredients including the following:
- NutriGenesis Iron+
- CarnoSyn Beta-Alanine
- Maritime Pine Bark Extract
- Creatine Monohydrates such as Creapure pH10
- Himalayan pink salt
- Cordyceps Sinesis
Performance Lab Sport Pre-Shipping and Returns Policy
Performance Lab provides fast shipping and tracking for its products. The products are shipped in 24 hours after the order is placed on Monday through Friday.
If you place your order on a weekend or public holiday, it will be sent on the next working day. The company provides its customers with a 60-day money-back guarantee for all its products. This means that if you are not satisfied with the product in any way, you can contact the company’s customer support within 7 days after delivery and ask to return the product for a refund.
The 60-day money-back guarantee only applies to customers who have bought the company’s products for the first time and only for one container of each product.
Pros and Cons
- Performance Lab Sport Pre is a vegan-friendly plant-based pre-workout supplement for women
- It is formulated from powerful 100% natural ingredients
- Boosts energy levels to handle high-intensity workouts
- It is free of additives, stimulants, allergens, and other artificial products known to have side effects
- Does not contain caffeine
- It has low amounts of key ingredients
- Comes in a large capsule size
- You can only buy it online from the manufacturer’s website
There are many positive reviews and testimonials about Performance Lab Sport Pre on the product’s official page. The reviews are largely positive about the product.
Most of the customers describe it as a clean formula with great ingredients such as L-Citrulline and Creatine among others. One of the satisfied users of Performance Lab Sport Pre states that it helps in reducing fatigue and tiredness.
Others liked its vegan-friendly formulation and the fact that it does not contain sweeteners and high amounts of caffeine like other pre-workout supplements do.
Performance Lab Pricing
A single bottle of Performance Lab Sport Pre-Workout supplement has 120 capsules which is actually a complete dose for one month if you take four capsules per day.
The bottle costs $39 but you can always save more money by purchasing more than one bottle at a time from the company’s official website.
Keep in mind that the Performance Lab Sport Pre-workout supplement can only be bought at the official website because it is not available in shops and other online retail sites such as Amazon.
Best Pre-Workout for Women Supplements Buyers Guide
Pre-workouts are supplements rich in proteins and carbohydrates and formulated to help you achieve your workout needs when taken at the right proportion. Normally, a pre-workout supplement should be taken between 30 to 40 minutes before workout.
The main purpose of taking these supplements is to stimulate the body and enhance your overall performance. Pre-workout supplements also come with additional benefits such as increased energy and stamina as well as delayed fatigue.
When you walk out without the aid of pre-workout formulas you may suffer from exhaustion before your session is over. The supplements also help to increase your focus and motivation when working out. They are made from ingredients that help you to recover fast between your workout sessions.
The goal of taking pre-workout supplements is to help you get the most out of your workout sessions. So how do you find the best pre-workout supplements to boost your energy levels, endurance, and faster recovery?
Let’s look at some of the key things to consider when shopping for the best pre-workout for women supplements.
Factors to Consider Before Buying Pre-Workout for Women Supplements
As you probably know, the fitness supplements industry is riddled with all types of products including the good, the not so good, the bad, and the totally ugly.
Just as there are a lot of great products out there you will also find many below-par and totally useless, if not risky, supplements on sale today. The aim of this buying guide is to help you find the best product from all the noise in the supplements market today.
Here are some of the key things to look out for when shopping for the best pre-workout for women supplements.
1.) Product Ingredients
The most important thing to look out for in a good pre-workout supplement for women is its ingredients.
A good pre-workout supplement should have certain ingredients such as vitamins, amino acids, useful plant extracts, and minerals.
Ideally, it should contain the following key ingredients:
- Vitamin B12 in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
- Caffeine to boost your alertness and enhance performance. Caffeine also amplifies and endurance which helps you to work harder in your sessions. However, avoid products with excessive amounts of caffeine.
- Beta-alanine which is an ingredient that combines with histamine the muscles to increase carnosine levels and reduce the buildup of lactic acid. Reduced lactic acid prevents quick onset of fatigue while working out.
- Citrulline malate which widens your blood vessels and allows a better flow of blood throughout your body. This process also reduces fatigue while exercising.
- Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) which include valine, leucine, and isoleucine. These amino acids important in muscle growth and improving endurance during your workout sessions.
- Sodium bicarbonate which prevents the build-up of acid and the feeling of fatigue during your workouts. Keep in mind that sodium bicarbonate may not be good for you if you are sensitive to salt.
2.) The Amount of Caffeine in the Product
As previously stated, a pre-workout supplement should contain a small dose of caffeine as part of its ingredients. However, some pre-workout supplements tend to overdo it when it comes to the amount of caffeine used in the formulation of the product.
You should ideally look for a supplement that has 200 milligrams or less of caffeine in each serving. Remember that a regular cup of coffee which usually gives you a stimulating boost contains around 100mg of caffeine.
Excessive consumption of caffeine may have adverse effects on some people. So, if you are sensitive to stimulants or normally consumed a lot of caffeine you may need to look for her caffeine-free pre-workout supplement.
The pre-workout supplement should not be considered as a bitter pill. Look for a product that is not only effective but tastes good as well.
Most pre-workout supplements available in powder form are formulated to be mixed with water or juice and taken 30 to 40 minutes before training.
This means that you’ll be taking the supplement regularly. So, you will want it to have a pleasant taste. For supplements that come in capsule form, taste will not be a major issue to consider.
4.) Side Effects
It is also important to ensure that the pre-workout supplement does not contain any harmful, banned, or unhealthy ingredients.
The last thing you want is to suffer side effects while preparing to start your workout sessions. The product should not only contain legal and tested ingredients but list all its ingredients clearly on its label. It should also be manufactured in a facility that is FDA registered and approved.
Read the label carefully and if you are sensitive to a specific ingredient skip the product and look for a safer one. Fortunately, most of the approved pre-workout supplements including the ones we have listed above are made of 100% natural ingredients which are not likely to cause any side effects. Side effects may occur if you do not use the product as directed by the manufacturer.
Some of the potential side effects caused by overdose or inclusion of excessive amounts of caffeine, and other stimulants include the following:
- Insomnia or bad sleeping patterns
- And prickly or tingling sensations among others
It is therefore important to follow the daily recommended dosage to avoid suffering side effects caused by overdosing.
You should not increase the dosage on your own so make sure to always follow the instructions given by the product manufacturer. If you are under medication or have an ongoing medical condition such as diabetes and high blood pressure consult your doctor before you start taking pre-workout supplements.
If the supplement adversely affects your sleep cycle you may need to switch it for another one with less caffeine or other stimulants. More importantly, always stick to the recommended daily dosage to avoid side effects.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the best time to take pre-workout supplements?
Different pre-workout supplements come in different dosages and different amounts of different ingredients.
It is therefore important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions on the right time to use the pre-workout supplement. However, as the name suggests, these are supplements formulated to be used before you start your workout sessions.
So, the best time to take the supplement is anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour before your workout.
Are these supplements legal?
Pre-workout supplements are illegal in most countries. However, to be on the safe side, always check if the ingredients used in the pre-work supplement are legal in your country or state.
All the products we have reviewed above are 100% legal in the US, the UK and other parts of the world.
How safe are pre-workout supplements?
Pre-workout supplements are practically safe when used according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Most of them are made from natural ingredients and therefore do not pause risks of serious side effects.
However, since our bodies react differently to different ingredients and formulations you may need to discontinue your use of a certain pre-workout supplement product and consult your doctor the moment you notice any side effects.
To stay safe always buy your supplements from the manufacturer’s official website. Do not buy from suspicious websites or third-party vendors who could probably be selling a low-grade or even harmful imitation of the real product.
What are the best pre-workouts for women supplements?
There are many companies and brands selling different types of pre-workout supplements for women but based on our research we recommend the following products which we have featured in our list: Powher, 4 Gauge, Blackwolf, and Performance Lab Sport Pre.
These 4 pre-workout supplements for women contain the right amounts of natural ingredients, are manufactured by reputable companies, and have been tested and found to give you the boost you need to accomplish your workout goals.
However, it’s extremely important to follow the recommended dosage from the manufacturers. Never decide by yourself without consulting first with a doctor about the potential side effects that you could experience while using pre-workout supplements.